Tuesday, January 8, 2008

Eats 1011 Lecture 2

From Last Lecture

  • Photosynthesis
    • N(CO2 + sunlight à(H2CO)n + nO2(day)
    • O2 + H2CO à CO2 + H2O(night)"burning" (energy release)
    • Death/burial oc C à O2 remains in atmosphere
  • Summary
    • Most of the carbon is in sedimentary rocks so that the CO2 – N2 **
    • Carbon budget(arb units)
      • Biosphere:
        • Marine: 1
        • Non-marine: 1
      • Atmosphere: 70
      • Ocean – dissolved : 4000
      • Fossil fuels : 800
      • Shales: 800 000
      • Carbonate Rocks: 2 000 000
    • Pressure and density
      • In talking of the atmosphere in a quantitative fashion we need to be concerned about certain fundamentals
      • Pressure, P, of a gas
      • Force/area = Newtons/m2 = Pascal(Pa)
      • Two ( at least) views
        • Microscopic or macroscopic
        • Microscopic or kinetic
          • Collisions and rate of change of momentum
        • Macroscopic
          • The barometer, 1644
        • Column of mercury balances air pressure
        • Pressure
          • =weight of air / area
          • = mass / m2
          • note that as we ascend there is lenss air so that pressure decreases with altitude
          • surface pressure at MSL (mean sea level)
            • 101.32 kPa
            • =1013.2 mb (millibars)
            • =760 mm Hg = .76 metres Hg
            • =29.2 inches Hg
            • =32 feet of water approx 10 meters of water
            • Mass of air over 1 m2 = P/g ~ 105/10
              • = 104 kg = 10 tonnes / m2
            • *1mb = 100 Pa = 1hPa
            • Back to origins
              • If oceans evaporated, what would the pressure be?
              • The weight of column of water – per square meter
              • Mass of water over 1 m2
                • Density * volume =
                  • 103kg/m3 x 3.2*103 m*1m2
                  • =3.5 * 106 kg/m2
                • Weight = mass *g
                  • ~ 3.5 * 107 Pa = 350 atm
  • Pressure of gas = force per unit area (Pa)
  • Boyles law, P∞ 1/v
    • T constant
    • V volume
  • Charles Law V∞ T
    • P constant
  • Combine as perfect gas law (PGL) or equation of state
    • P pRT
    • R = R*/M(gas constant)
    • R* = 8.314*x103 J/K/kmole (universal gas constant
    • M = kg molecular weight
    • T = temperature in degrees Kelvin = 273.16+ T(°C)
  • Density at MSL p = P/RT
    • M = kg molecular weight = 29 kg/kmole
    • R = R*/M
    • R*/29kg/ kmole = 287 J/K/kg
    • T = 27°C = 300K
    • P = P/RT = 105/(287*300)
    • ~1.2 kg/m3
  • Vertical Structure
    • Vertical variation (Z) of pressure in the atmosphere
    • (get diagram from website)
    • Stationary cylinder
      • Cross sectional area, A
      • Density, p(kg/M3)
    • Weight of cylinder downwards is balanced by net upward pressure force
    • Mass of cylinder = volume * density
      • DZ * Axp
    • Force balance (upwards)
      • (P + dP) * A + P * A – dZ*A*p*g = 0
    • Simplify
      • dP/dZ = -pg – Hydrostatic Law
    • H = RT/g(m) = 8km
    • P(0) = 1.013*102kPa
    • P(0) = 1.2 kg/m3
    • P(Z) = p(0) * exp(-z/h)
    • p(Z) = p(0) * exp(-z/h)
  • the higher you go upwards the less pressure in the atmosphere
  • https://horsehead.ccs.yorku.ca/moodle/login/index.php
  • Mean free path(λ) (the average distance between molecules calculating a distance a molecule can travel before it collides with another
    • Q*N* λ = 1
    • Q – cross section (m2)
    • Number density, N (molec m-3)
    • Surface, λ = .3 чm
    • 300 km, λ = 100km (satellite drag)
  • Vertical variation of pressure – ocean
    • Equation of state p = p0*z (z<0), ie P increases linearly with depth
    • P doubles in z = 10 meteres, ie P(0) = p0*g*z
  • Vertical temperature Structure
    • In the stratosphere/ thermosphere temperature increases with height
    • In the troposphere/mesosphere it decreases
    • In order
      • Troposphere
      • Stratosphere
      • Mesosphere
      • Thermosphere
    • Temperature structure
      • Troposphere: 0-10/16km tropopause
      • Stratosphere: tropopause – 50km
      • Mesosphere: stratopause – 85km
      • Thermosphere: mesopause – 300km
      • Exosphere: above 300km "collisionless"
    • Lapse rate
    • ***
    • Homosphere
      • Most "inert" species are well mixed
    • Heterosphere
      • Species are in diffusive equilibrium i.e for each species there is a hydrostatic law
    • Ionosphere
      • Atmosphere is ionized by EUV

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